Psychology

Emotion Regulation

Studies of the neural processes of emotion regulation show that "there is observed activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions and modulation of activity in brain areas associated with emotion, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala." There are also strong correlations between emotion regulation and stress coping.

Dream Interpretation

The strong emotional nature of dreams lends credence to the theory that dreams possess some important information within them. Attempts to explain dreams have been quite numerous. Most notable of these attempts is perhaps Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams are the displays of the very deepest darkest wishes of humans. Although what exactly dreams are is still debated, research has shown that most people throughout the world believe dreams to be important sources of information. In fact people often value information experienced in dreams over similar thoughts that occurred while awake.

Dreams

Dreams are a basic aspect of human existence yet dreams are not completely understood. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were a means to "fulfilling forbidden aggressive and sexual wishes." Allan Hobson, a sleep researcher, suggested that dreams were simply background "noise while the brain does its homework." Threat-simulation theory is a particularly promising model for understanding dreams developed by Antti Revonsuo, a Finnish psychologist. Revonsuo believes that dreams are a way of practicing to deal with and prepare for threats that humans face during their waking hours.

Decision Making

Humans must constantly make decision. Although we are performing this action almost every second, scientists have not yet completely understood this universal human process. Regarding the neurological basis of decision making, fMRI scans have illustrated that specific regions of the brain are activated during the decision making process. The orbitofrontal (OFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACd) are two of these region. ACd was the main region activated when a person could make an independent decision.

Crying

Crying is generally considered to be beneficial by people. This idea, however, is not entirely supported by scientific data. Psychologists reconcile this contradiction between popular opinion and laboratory results by assigning greater importance to how and when the measurement of the benefits of crying is conducted. Physiological studies during a crying session show that both arousal, such as increased heart rate, and calming effects, such as slower breathing rate, have different durations. Calming effects generally last longer than the effects of arousal.

Coyness

Coyness is a physical display that humans perform universally. It consists of a mixture of displays of bashfulness and happiness. Coyness is elicited generally by two social situations, social attention and public performance. Preliminary research suggests that this trait is present in human babies as early as two months of age and is a reaction to social attention. This finding could have substantial bearing on theories regarding the development of the perception of self in infants.

Time Perception

Time perception is inherent in all people. Theories regarding the particular neurological and psychological processes that facilitate time perception, however, are not as unanimously accepted as the ability itself. Among the various theories of time perception, the "state-dependent networks" model suggests that "time-varying neuronal properties" allow for inherent encoding of temporal information.

Childhood Fears

As with any science, the study of fear and theories and models developed to explain fear are many and quite likely to be disproven or at least adjusted with new empirical data. Keeping this fact in mind, some experimental data suggests that on average a child has two to five fears during their childhood. It is also important to note that childhood fears generally follow a certain developmental pattern. This, some scientists believe, is an evolutionary adaptation that protects a child by exhibiting different fears that reflect the changing threats a child faces during development.

Attachment

Attachment is a universal human process. It first becomes evident in the development of babies. This emotion is considered to be related to the ability of babies to recognize facial expressions. The ability to differentiate facial expressions exhibiting different emotions is an innate ability of babies and the categorization of these expressions is fairly universal among humans. When babies are able to recognize facial expressions this correlates to a more secure attachment between mother and child which in turn enables the child to better judge and understand the feelings of others.

Anticipation

Anticipation in psychology is the emotion a person experiences when thinking about a future event. Anticipation in comparison to retrospection, remembering an emotional experience of the past, has been experimentally suggested to be a more intense emotional experience for people. This occurred irrespective of the nature of the emotion that is whether the emotion was positive, negative, of different times or completely hypothetical.

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